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The association described the move as “unfair and extremely regrettable” and warned that it will carefully examine the decision, including consideration of World Trade Organisation rules.

“After holding discussions with the Japanese government officials, we will determine a proper course of action," it added.

“We are still holding talks with the Indonesian and Japanese governments to try and get this unfair decision over-ruled," an official at Japan's largest steel producer, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal (NSSMC), said.

The additional duty that will be imposed on NSSMC will stand at 55.6%, which is the highest level requested by the Indonesian anti-dumping commission.

“Our feelings are echoed by the JISF statement. We are working with our customers to try and find ways to minimise the impact of the tariffs," a JFE Steel official said when asked whether the move would force JFE Steel to reduce its cold-rolled exports to Indonesia.

Japan's steel producers say the move by Jakarta is ultimately self-defeating and causes irreparable damage to Indonesian manufacturing industry, including its fast-growing automotive manufacturing sector.

The measures, which also affect imports from China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, will last for three years.